A Tracheotomy is a procedure to create a surgical opening of the trachea (tracheostomy) to facilitate respiration, by inserting a tube which bypasses a blockage in the trachea, caused by, for example, trauma, swelling, tumour, throat muscle paralysis, obstruction. Also for long term assisted ventilation of comatose patients.
Tracheotomy indications...
Tube types:
• Plastic and silver - silver tubes do not have inner tubes, and must be changed every 5-7 days. Some plastic tubes are changed every 30 days.

• Cuffed tubes protect the airway in ventilated patients.

• Fenestrated/unfenestrated - may be cuffed. They have a hole in the outer cannula, which allows air to pass from the lungs to the vocal chords, allowing patients to breathe normally, to cough secretions, and help voicing.

• Double or single cannula - double ones have an inner and outer tube. The inner tube reduces the lumen of the outer tube, so that respiratory effort is increased, but the outer tube allows the stoma to stay open.
Surgical Tracheotomy...