|Primary spontaneous||Small tear in the outer lung allows air to
escape, then trapped between a lung and the chest wall. Trapped air might clear
by itself, by being absorbed into the bloodstream.|
|Secondary spontaneous||Develops as a complication
(secondary event) of an existing lung disease, such as
|Injury||Due to accident trauma, or during surgery. Usually
requires surgical intervention.|
|Tension||Occurs when air feeds into the pleural cavity from a
bronchus, but is unable to return to the bronchus. The resultant increasing
pressure, outside of the lung, can lead to collapse of that lung. Gives a monitor
rhythm, but no pulse - similar to PEA.
Aspiration:It may be necessary to aspirate the
trapped air, especially in a large pneumothorax, or when other respiratory
problems are present. The common method of removing the air is by aspiration
through a tube, which has a 3 way tap and syringe attached.
- Local anaesthetic is injected into the drain site.
- Insert the tube through the chest wall.
- Aspirate some air through the syringe.
- Turn off the three-way tap.
- Expel the air in the syringe to the atmosphere.
- Keep aspirating until most of the air is removed.