Obstetric complications
Complications of Epidural
Contraindications to spinal/epidural
Massive Obstetric Haemorrhage
A major cause of maternal death and morbidity. It is variably defined as:

The gravid uterus receives up to 12 % of the cardiac output, thus obstetric haemorrhage can be unexpected and can rapidly become life threatening.

Obstetric Haemorrhage classifications:
Haemorrhage typeDescriptionCauses
Antepartum (APH)Bleeding after 24 weeks gestation and before delivery. Placental abruption, Placenta praevia, Trauma, Uterine rupture
Primary postpartum (PPH)Blood loss within 24 hours of delivery, which is > 500 ml, following a vaginal delivery, and > 1000 ml following a Caesarean section. Uterine atony, Retained products of conception, Genital tract trauma, Clotting defects, Inverted uterus
Secondary postpartumBlood loss greater than 24 hours after delivery. Retained products of conception, Puerperal sepsis