- Irritation to vocal chords by trauma or obstruction
- Sensitivity to a drug
- Reaction to endotracheal tube insertion/removal
The resultant hypoxia (low oxygen) and hypercapnia (high
CO2) produces an increased
respiratory effort, with noisier breathing.
Violent coughing or breath holding indicates airway obstruction, which
requires suction. At induction: laryngospasm breaks up with deeper anaesthesia.
A forceful cough may dislodge foreign material.
Treatment at reversal...
- Jaw thrust
- 100% oxygen via Mapleson C circuit, with valve partially closed
- Light positive pressure to reservoir bag
- Lignocaine IV (1mg/kg)